CHEMISTRY FINAL STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 13-25
* You may use one page of handwritten notes on the exam.
Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases.
Define evaporation in terms of kinetic energy.
Explain what causes gas pressure.
Identify factors that determine physical properties of a liquid.
Define evaporation in terms of kinetic energy.
Identify factors that determine physical properties of a solid.
Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are.
Identify the factors that affect gas pressure.
Describe the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas (Boyle’s Law).
Describe the relationship between temperature and volume of a gas (Charles’s Law).
Describe the relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas (Gay-Lussac’s Law).
Define an ideal gas and contrast with real gases.
Explain the cause of water’s unique properties, including high surface tension and low vapor pressure.
Define solvent, solute, and solution.
Describe what happens in the solution process.
Explain why all ionic compounds are electrolytes.
Distinguish between a suspension and a solution.
Explain the factors that determine the rate at which a solute dissolves.
Identify the units usually used to express the solubility of a solute.
Calculate the molarity of a solution.
• Practice problems 8-9, pg. 481.
Calculate concentration of a solution in percent.
• Practice problems 14-15, pg. 485.
Explain how energy, heat, and work are related.
Define exothermic and endothermic processes.
Identify the units used to measure heat transfer.
Explain heat capacity and specific heat.
Calculate specific heat.
• Practice problems 3-4, pg. 510.
Explain the heat flow and temperature change of a material when it melts, freezes, vaporizes, or condenses.
Define rate of reaction and how it is expressed.
Explain the collision theory in relation to the rate of reaction
Explain activation energy.
Explain how the rate of reaction is affected by temperature, concentration, and particle size.
Describe how a catalyst affects chemical reaction.
Describe how the amounts of reactants and products change in a chemical system at equilibrium.
Describe how three stresses can change the equilibrium (Le Chatelier’s Principle).
• Practice problem 6, pg. 555.
Identify the properties of acids and bases.
Compare and contrast acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis.
Explain a conjugate acid-base pair.
Know how to identify acids and bases on a PH scale.
Define strong acids and weak acids.
Define strong bases and weak bases.
Define the products of an acid-base reaction.
Define oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss or gain of oxygen and the loss or gain of electrons.
Name the type of reactions involved in electrochemical processes.
Describe the bonding characteristics of the carbon atom.
Define and describe alkanes.
Identify cyclic ring structures.
Explain how organic compounds are classified.
Define a polymer.
Define monosaccharide and describe its structure.
Define amino acid and describe its structure.
Define peptide and describe its structure, including the peptide bond.
Explain how enzymes affect biochemical reactions.
Identify the physical property that distinguishes lipids from other biological molecules.
Explain how an unstable nucleus releases energy.
Identify the three main types of nuclear radiation and explain how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.
Describe the penetrating power and type of damage produced by each type of radiation.
Describe what happens in a nuclear chain reaction.
Distinguish fission reactions from fusion reactions.
* You may use one page of handwritten notes on your midterm. * Turn in the study guide and online chapter quizzes before the midterm to earn 10 extra credit points. * Post notes each week to study with your classmates.
CHEMISTRY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry.
Identify steps in the scientific method.
Identify properties of matter as extensive or intensive.
Define physical property and list several common physical properties of substances.
Identify characteristics of the three states of matter.
Describe a physical change.
Explain the difference between an element and a compound.
Distinguish between a substance and a mixture.
Identify four possible clues that a chemical change has taken place.
Explain the differences among accuracy, precision, and error of a measurement.
Determine the number of significant figures in a measurement and in a calculated answer.
· Practice problems 1-8, pgs. 68-71
Calculate the density of a material.
· Practice problems 46-47, pg. 91
Describe how density varies with temperature.
Identify three types of subatomic particles.
Describe the structure of atoms according to the Rutherford atomic model.
Explain what makes elements and isotopes different from each other.
Calculate the number of neutrons in an atom.
· Practice problems 15-18, pgs. 111-112.
Define an atomic mass unit (amu).
Identify the new proposal in the Bohr model of the atom.
Describe the energies and positions of the electrons according to the quantum mechanical model.
Describe how the shapes of orbitals related to different sublevels differ.
Describe how to write the electron configuration for an atom.
· Practice problems 8-9, pg. 135.
Explain how the frequencies of emitted light are related to changes in electron energies.
Explain how elements are organized in a periodic table.
Identify three broad classes of elements and how to identify them on the periodic table.
Describe the information in a periodic table.
Classify elements based on electron configuration.
Describe trends among the elements for atomic size.
Explain how ions are formed and the difference between cations and anions.
Define ionization energy and electronegativity.
Describe periodic trends for ionization energy, ionic size and electronegativity.
Define valance electrons.
Determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element.
Explain the octet rule.
Describe how cations and anions form.
Predict formulas of ionic compounds.
· Practice problems 12-13, pg. 196.
Explain the basis of a metallic bond.
Describe how electrons are shared to form covalent bonds.
Use electron dot structures to represent shared electrons.
· Practice problems 7-8, pg. 220.
Describe how atoms form double or triple covalent bonds.
Distinguish between a covalent bond and a coordinate covalent bond.
Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules.
Describe the strength of intermolecular attractions.
Explain hydrogen bonds.
Define monatomic ion.
Identify the charges on monatomic ions by using the periodic table and know how to name them.
Define polyatomic ion.
Identify the two common endings for the names of most polyatomic ions.
Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary ionic compounds.
· Practice problems 10-11, pg. 263.
Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for compounds with polyatomic ions.
· Practice problems 12-13, pg. 265.
Interpret the prefixes in the names of molecular compounds.
Apply three rules for naming acids.
Define Avogadro’s number as it relates to a mole of a substance.
Convert the number of atoms of a substance to moles.
· Practice problems 3-4, pg. 291.
Convert moles to number of atoms.
· Practice problems 5-6, pg. 292.
Calculate the molar mass of a compound.
· Practice problems 7-8, pg. 296.
Convert the mass of a substance to number of moles, and moles to mass.
· Practice problems 16-19, pgs. 298-299.
Define standard temperature and pressure (STP).
Identify the volume of a quantity of gas at STP.
Calculate the volume of a gas at STP.
· Practice problems 20-21, pg. 301.
Explain the difference between empirical and molecular formulas.
Describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.
· Practice problems 3-6, pgs. 327-328.
Describe the five general types of reactions.
Identify the quantities that are always conserved in chemical reactions.
Construct mole ratios from balanced chemical equations to apply in stochiometric calculations.
Calculate the moles of a product.
· Practice problems 11-12, pg. 360.
Calculate the mass of a product.
· Practice problems 13-14, pg. 361.
Calculate the percent yield of a reaction.
· Practice problems 31-32, pg. 375.
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