Final Study Guide 2016

* You may use one page of handwritten notes on the exam.
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Chapter 13

Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases.

Define evaporation in terms of kinetic energy.

Explain what causes gas pressure.

Identify factors that determine physical properties of a liquid.

Define evaporation in terms of kinetic energy.

Identify factors that determine physical properties of a solid.

Chapter 14

Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are.

Identify the factors that affect gas pressure.

Describe the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas (Boyle’s Law).

Describe the relationship between temperature and volume of a gas (Charles’s Law).

Describe the relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas (Gay-Lussac’s Law).

Define an ideal gas and contrast with real gases.

Chapter 15

Explain the cause of water’s unique properties, including high surface tension and low vapor pressure.

Define solvent, solute, and solution.

Describe what happens in the solution process.

Explain why all ionic compounds are electrolytes.

Distinguish between a suspension and a solution.

Chapter 16

Explain the factors that determine the rate at which a solute dissolves.

Identify the units usually used to express the solubility of a solute.

Calculate the molarity of a solution.

• Practice problems 8-9, pg. 481.

Calculate concentration of a solution in percent.

• Practice problems 14-15, pg. 485.

Chapter 17

Explain how energy, heat, and work are related.

Define exothermic and endothermic processes.

Identify the units used to measure heat transfer.

Explain heat capacity and specific heat.

Calculate specific heat.

• Practice problems 3-4, pg. 510.

Explain the heat flow and temperature change of a material when it melts, freezes, vaporizes, or condenses.

Chapter 18

Define rate of reaction and how it is expressed.

Explain the collision theory in relation to the rate of reaction

Explain activation energy.

Explain how the rate of reaction is affected by temperature, concentration, and particle size.

Describe how a catalyst affects chemical reaction.

Describe how the amounts of reactants and products change in a chemical system at equilibrium.

Describe how three stresses can change the equilibrium (Le Chatelier’s Principle).

• Practice problem 6, pg. 555.

Chapter 19

Identify the properties of acids and bases.

Compare and contrast acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis.

Explain a conjugate acid-base pair.

Know how to identify acids and bases on a PH scale.

Define strong acids and weak acids.

Define strong bases and weak bases.

Define the products of an acid-base reaction.

Chapter 20

Define oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss or gain of oxygen and the loss or gain of electrons.

Chapter 21

Name the type of reactions involved in electrochemical processes.

Chapter 22

Describe the bonding characteristics of the carbon atom.

Define and describe alkanes.

Identify cyclic ring structures.

Chapter 23

Explain how organic compounds are classified.

Define a polymer.

Chapter 24

Define monosaccharide and describe its structure.

Define amino acid and describe its structure.

Define peptide and describe its structure, including the peptide bond.

Explain how enzymes affect biochemical reactions.

Identify the physical property that distinguishes lipids from other biological molecules.

Chapter 25

Explain how an unstable nucleus releases energy.

Identify the three main types of nuclear radiation and explain how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.

Describe the penetrating power and type of damage produced by each type of radiation.

Describe what happens in a nuclear chain reaction.

Distinguish fission reactions from fusion reactions.